The Mountain Spirits known to the Western Apaches as Gaahn
have profound religious significance. The Gaahn reside at special
mountains such as Dzil Nchaa Si' An (Mt. Graham) and provide
spiritual guidance, health, and direction in the Apache lifeway. Among
many other powers, during the Sunrise Ceremony the Gaahn
provide to the young Apache changing women health, wisdom, and a
spiritual connection to guide them throughout their adult lives.
Record of Apache Opposition to the Desecration of Mt. Graham by
the University of Arizona and their Astronomer Collaborators
Extensive documentation of Apache opposition to the telescope
from 1989 to 2001. Compiled by Apaches for Cultural Preservation,
the Apache Survival Coalition, and the Mt. Graham Coalition.
Ola Cassadore Davis' July 28, 1999 Testimony to the United Nations' Sub-Commission
on Prevention of Discrimination and Protection of Minorities, Working Group on Indingenous Peoples.
Ola Cassadore Davis is an enrolled member of the San Carlos Apache and the Chairwoman
of the Apache Survival Coalition.
1998 Statement of
Ola Cassadore Davis to the United Nations
Permit to Pray?
UA demands Native Americans obtain prayer permits 48 hrs. prior
to praying on Mt. Graham. Mount Graham Coalition News Release,
August 13, 1998.
The Heart of Genuine Sadness
Astronomers, politicians, and federal employees desecrate the holiest
mountain of the San Carlos Apache. By Peter Warshall.
Reprinted with permission from Whole Earth No. 91, Winter 1997.
Apaches for Cultural Preservation
Organization founded by Wendsler Nosie Sr. and Ernest Victor Jr. to educate young Apaches
about Apache history and traditional Apache ceremonies, songs, language, foods, spirituality, and sacred sites.